People really don’t die due to skin burns, but their hardship is much more noxious than a normal person can think off! The two of the most common problems that have been encountered so far clinically with many burnt inmates are infection and dehydration. It has been noticed that depending upon the severity and degree of burns, blood vessels are found to be constricted and leaky; releasing more fluids into the blood. Thus, the higher the degree of infection, the more severe will be the loss of fluid and greater will be the extent of dehydration.
Burns can be categorized as one of the most common domestic injuries, which have not exempted any age or sex! Burns are typically distinguished as severe skin damage due to fire, chemical, electricity, etc. to the extent that even the deepest layer of skin, like dermis and nerve endings, are being damaged.
The human skin is the largest yet vital organ of the human body, with many crucial functions. The structural attributes of the organ are equally complex with multiple layers, designated for specific functions. The outermost layer of the skin is known as the epidermis with many sub-cellular layers, made up of keratinocytes, melanocytes, squamous cells, etc. Together these cells are entitled to structural integrity, protection and hydration of the skin. The dermis is the middle layer of the skin, comprising of blood vessels, lymph vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, collagen bundles, and nerve bundles. The layer is responsible for the conduction of pain and touch signals. The subcutis is the innermost layer of the skin, comprising of fat cells, acting as a shock absorber and helping in conserving the body’s thermal index.
A severe burn can have a devastating impact on a person’s emotional and social status, associated with loss of certain physical abilities, disfigurement, scarring, and persistently recurrent infections. Moreover, a person with reduced immunity can possibly be affected even at the tissue level, altering every system of the body. As the extent and the severity of damage are so brutal, even the need for rehabilitation becomes more crucial. Traditionally, surgical excision, laser therapy, steroidal medications, irradiation therapy, mechanical compression dressing, etc. and many other techniques have been tried and tested to treat burnt victims, over the years; but the outcome has been achieved only in the form of modest improvement, leaving behind the sediments.
On the contrary, the technology has devised a new non-invasive method to prevent significant burn scarring associated with the better recovery and highest success rate; with the help of stem cell therapy, stimulated with the patient’s own platelet-rich plasma. Stem cells are the youngest start-ups, operating in each organ to protect it from the normal wear and tear of the body. These cells have a unique potential to differentiate into cells of different origin. Thus, in the case of burnt victims, patients own stem cells can be isolated from his/her fat, stimulated with autologous platelet-rich plasma and infused back at the site of injury. Once inside the body, these cells are known to promote blood vessel formation, regeneration of lost skin cells at different levels and synthesis of the structural components of skin to close the wound. The stem cells have as well observed to reduce inflammation, and promote faster regeneration of scarred skin.
As a matter of fact, the understanding of stem cells and their potential application in regenerative medicine has accelerated to the great extent, since the last couple of years; although more accession is desirable to harness the complete potential of stem cells for the maximum benefit is the need of an hour!